Weighing Empty Space
Sometimes staring into empty space is useful. Pictured above is a region of sky that was picked because it had, well, nothing: no bright stars, no bright galaxies, and no picturesque nebulas. What could not be avoided, however, were a few stars in our own Galaxy, and many distant galaxies strewn across the universe. Now the more distant galaxies have their light slightly deflected by the gravity of more nearby galaxies, causing them to appear slightly distorted. By analyzing these gravitational lens distortions, nearby mass concentrations can be found, regardless of how bright they appear. Using this method, astronomers can now weigh entire clusters of galaxies and search for large groupings of relatively dark matter. Circled in the lower right of the above image is a cluster of galaxies that was found not by its light, but by its mass.
Please read these Terms of Service ("Terms") carefully. They contain the legal terms and conditions that govern your use of services provided to you by Arthola, including information, text, images, graphics, data or other materials ("Content") and products and services provided through www.arthola.com, and arthola apps, incuding mobile apps and smart TV apps as well as all elements, software, programs and code forming or incorporated in to www.Arthola.com (the "Service"). This Service is operated by Arthola and all its legal entities ("Arthola"). Arthola is also referred to in these Terms as "we", "our", and "us".
By using our Service, you agree to be bound by Section I of these Terms ("General Terms"), which contains provisions applicable to all users of our Service, including visitors to the Arthola website (the "Site"). If you choose to register as a member with us via the web site and/or via our apps, you will be asked to check a box indicating that you have read, and agree to be bound by, the additional terms set forth in Section II of these Terms ("Additional Terms").
Section I: General Terms
- Reporting Copyright Violations
- External Links
- Third Party Software
- Disclaimer of Warranty and Limitation of Liability
- Amendment of the Terms
- Submitting Content
- Copyright in Your Content
- Monitoring Content
- Storage Policy
- Suspension and Termination of Access and Membership
- Payment Policy
This Service is provided by Arthola on an "AS IS" and "AS AVAILABLE" basis and Arthola reserves the right to modify, suspend or discontinue the Service, in its sole discretion, at any time and without notice. You agree that Arthola is and will not be liable to you for any modification, suspension or discontinuance of the Service.
All brand, product and service names used in this Service which identify Arthola or third parties and their products and services are proprietary marks of Arthola and/or the relevant third par0ties. Nothing in this Service shall be deemed to confer on any person any license or right on the part of Arthola or any third party with respect to any such image, logo or name.
Arthola is, unless otherwise stated, the owner of all copyright and data rights in the Service and its contents. Individuals who have posted works to Arthola are either the copyright owners of the component parts of that work or are posting the work under license from a copyright owner or his/her agent or otherwise as permitted by law. You may not reproduce, distribute, publicly display or perform, or prepare derivative works based on any of the Content including any such works without the express, written consent of Arthola or the owner of copyright in such works. Arthola does not claim ownership rights in your works or other materials posted by you to Arthola (your content). You agree not to distribute any part of the Service other than your content in any medium other than as permitted in these Terms of Service or by use of functions on the Service provided by us. You agree not to alter or modify any part of the Service unless expressly permitted to do so by us or by use of functions on the Service provided by us.
Arthola respects the intellectual property rights of others and expects users of the Service to do the same. At Arthola's discretion and in appropriate circumstances, Arthola may remove your content submitted to the Site, terminate the accounts of users or prevent access to the Site by users who infringe the intellectual property rights of others. If you believe the copyright in your work or in the work for which you act as an agent has been infringed through this Service, please contact us immediately.
Arthola may provide links to third-party websites or resources. You acknowledge and agree that Arthola is not responsible or liable for: the availability or accuracy of such websites or resources; or the Content, products, or services on or available from such websites or resources. Links to such websites or resources do not imply any endorsement by Arthola of such websites or resources or the Content, products, or services available from such websites or resources. You acknowledge sole responsibility for and assume all risk arising from your use of any such websites or resources.
As a convenience, we may make third-party software available through the Service. To use the third-party software, you must agree to the terms and conditions imposed by the third party provider and the agreement to use such software will be solely between you and the third party provider. By downloading third party software, you acknowledge and agree that the software is provided on an "AS IS" basis without warranty of any kind. In no event shall Arthola be liable for claims or damages of any nature, whether direct or indirect, arising from or related to any third-party software downloaded through the Service.
You agree that you shall not interfere with or disrupt (or attempt to interfere with or disrupt) this Service or servers or networks connected to this Service, or to disobey any requirements, procedures, policies or regulations of networks connected to this Service; or provide any information to Arthola that is false or misleading, that attempts to hide your identity or that you do not have the right to disclose. Arthola does not endorse any content placed on the Service by third parties or any opinions or advice contained in such content. You agree to defend, indemnify, and hold harmless Arthola, its officers, directors, employees and agents, from and against any claims, liabilities, damages, losses, and expenses, including, without limitation, reasonable legal and expert fees, arising out of or in any way connected with your access to or use of the Services, or your violation of these Terms.
ARTHOLA MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED AS TO THE OPERATION OF THE SERVICE, OR THE CONTENT OR PRODUCTS, PROVIDED THROUGH THE SERVICE. YOU EXPRESSLY AGREE THAT YOUR USE OF THE SERVICE IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK. ARTHOLA DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. ARTHOLA MAKES NO WARRANTY AS TO THE SECURITY, RELIABILITY, TIMELINESS, AND PERFORMANCE OF THIS SERVICE. YOU SPECIFICALLY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT ARTHOLA IS NOT LIABLE FOR YOUR DEFAMATORY, OFFENSIVE OR ILLEGAL CONDUCT, OR SUCH CONDUCT BY THIRD PARTIES, AND YOU EXPRESSLY ASSUME ALL RISKS AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR DAMAGES AND LOSSES ARISING FROM SUCH CONDUCT. EXCEPT FOR THE EXPRESS, LIMITED REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN, AND TO THE FULLEST EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW, ARTHOLA SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES OF ANY KIND ARISING FROM USE OF THE SERVICE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES, EVEN IF ARTHOLA HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE FOREGOING DISCLAIMERS, WAIVERS AND LIMITATIONS SHALL APPLY NOTWITHSTANDING ANY FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF OR LIMITATIONS ON CERTAIN WARRANTIES OR DAMAGES. THEREFORE, SOME OF THE ABOVE EXCLUSIONS OR LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. IN NO EVENT SHALL ARTHOLA'S AGGREGATE LIABILITY TO YOU EXCEED THE AMOUNTS PAID BY YOU TO ARTHOLA PURSUANT TO THIS AGREEMENT.
We reserve the right to amend these Terms from time to time in our sole discretion. If you have registered as a member, we shall notify you of any material changes to these Terms (and the effective date of such changes) by sending an email to the address you have provided to Arthola for your account, and/or at a time when you log in to the Site and/or our apps. For all other users, we will post the revised terms on the Site. If you continue to use the Service after the effective date of the revised Terms, you will be deemed to have accepted those changes. If you do not agree to the revised Terms, your sole remedy shall be to discontinue using the Service.
If you have any comments or questions about the Service please contact us by email.
If you have any comments or questions about the Service please contact us by email.
Section II: Additional Terms
To register as a member of the Service or purchase products, you must be 13 years or lawfully permitted to enter into and form contracts under applicable law. In no event may minors submit Content to the Service. You agree that the information that you provide to us upon registration, at the time of purchase, and at all other times will be true, accurate, current and complete. You also agree that you will ensure that this information is kept accurate and up to date at all times. This is especially important with respect to your email address, since that is the primary way in which we will communicate with you about your account and your orders.
When you register as a member you will be asked to provide a password. You are responsible for safeguarding the password and you agree not to disclose your password to any third party. You agree that you shall be solely responsible for any activities or actions under your password, whether or not you have authorized such activities or actions. You shall immediately notify Arthola of any unauthorized use of your password.
Artist Materials - As a registered member of the Service, you will also be granted the privilege of submitting certain types of your content, known as "Artist Materials," for display on your user page. Prior to submitting Artist Materials, you must accept the additional terms and conditions of the Submission Policy, which is incorporated into, and forms a part of, the Terms.
Arthola does not claim ownership rights in your Content. For the sole purpose of enabling us to make your Content available through the Service, you grant to Arthola a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to reproduce, distribute, re-format, store, prepare derivative works based on, and publicly display and perform your Content. Please note that when you upload Content, third parties will be able to copy, distribute and display your Content using readily available tools on their computers for this purpose although other than by linking to your Content on Arthola any use by a third party of your Content could violate paragraph 4 of these Terms and Conditions unless the third party receives permission from you by license.
Arthola has no ability to control the Content you may upload, post or otherwise transmit using the Service and does not have any obligation to monitor such Content for any purpose. You acknowledge that you are solely responsible for all Content and material you upload, post or otherwise transmit using the Service.
At this time, Arthola provides free online storage of your Content to registered members of the Service. However, you acknowledge and agree that Arthola may, at its option, establish limits concerning your use of the Service, including without limitation the maximum number of days that your Content will be retained by the Service, the maximum size of any Content files that may be stored on the Service, the maximum disk space that will be allotted to you for the storage of Content on Arthola's servers. Furthermore, you acknowledge that Arthola reserves the right to terminate or suspend accounts that are inactive, in Arthola's sole discretion, for an extended period of time (thus deleting or suspending access to your Content). Without limiting the generality of Section 9, Arthola shall have no responsibility or liability for the deletion or failure to store any Content maintained on the Service and you are solely responsible for creating back-ups of your Content. You further acknowledge that Arthola reserves the right to modify its storage policies from time to time, with or without notice to you.
You are responsible for all of your Content you upload, download, and otherwise copy, distribute and display using the Service. You must have the legal right to copy, distribute and display all parts of any content that you upload, download and otherwise copy, distribute and display. Content provided to you by others, or made available through websites, magazines, books and other sources, are protected by copyright and should not be uploaded, downloaded, or otherwise copied, distributed or displayed without the consent of the copyright owner or as otherwise permitted by law.
You agree not to use the Service:
for any unlawful purposes; to upload, post, or otherwise transmit any material that is obscene, offensive, blasphemous, pornographic, unlawful, threatening, menacing, abusive, harmful, an invasion of privacy or publicity rights, defamatory, libelous, vulgar, illegal or otherwise objectionable; to upload, post, or otherwise transmit any material that infringes any copyright, trade mark, patent or other intellectual property right or any moral right or artist's right of any third party including, but not limited to, Arthola or to facilitate the unlawful distribution of copyrighted content or illegal content;to harm minors in any way, including, but not limited to, uploading, posting, or otherwise transmitting content that violates child pornography laws, child sexual exploitation laws or laws prohibiting the depiction of minors engaged in sexual conduct, or submitting any personally identifiable information about any child under the age of 13; to forge headers or otherwise manipulate identifiers in order to disguise the origin of any Content transmitted through the Service; to upload, post, or otherwise transmit any material which is likely to cause harm to Arthola or anyone else's computer systems, including but not limited to that which contains any virus, code, worm, data or other files or programs designed to damage or allow unauthorized access to the Service which may cause any defect, error, malfunction or corruption to the Service;for any commercial purpose, except as expressly permitted under these Terms; to sell access to the Service on any other website or to use the Service on another website for the primary purpose of gaining advertising or subscription revenue other than a personal blog or social network where the primary purpose is to display content from Arthola by hyperlink and not to compete with Arthola.
You agree that Arthola may at any time, and without notice, suspend or terminate any part of the Service, or refuse to fulfill any order, or any part of any order or terminate your membership and delete any Content stored on the Arthola Site, in Arthola's sole discretion, if you fail to comply with the Terms or applicable law.
Arthola MAY provide payments to members based on "like$" your content generates. "Like$" do not have monetary value until actual payment is remitted. Arthola provides payments strictly at its own discretion based on internal criteria that incorporate the like-ability of your content as well as a number of other tools that could be changed at any time. Arthola may refuse to remit payment to you and terminate your account at its own discretion, and especially if suspicion of fraudulent activities have been established, incuding but not limited to multiple account usage, crosslinked "like$", as well as any of our terms of service have been violated. If Arthola selects to remit a payment to you via the financial providers that we work with, upon receipt you are solely responsible to report the payment to your tax authority. Failure to do so will be considered a violation of our terms of service and your account could be terminated.
Members cannot claim monetary compensation from Arthola. Arthola provides payments at its own discretion.